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Tickets can be used by the principal holding the ticket as many times as necessary, as long as it is within the
inclusive period shown between the start time and the end time. The time for a ticket is set by the KDC and is
based upon the current time unless the client has requested a different start time. Clients do not have to
request a start time, but they do include the time they want the ticket to expire. The KDC consults the
Kerberos realm policy and adds the time indicated in the policy to the start time. If the client has requested a
specific end time, the KDC adds the requested end time to the start time. Whichever time is shorter, the time
calculated using the Kerberos policy or the time calculated using the client requested time, is the time used
for the end time.
If a client sends an expired session ticket to a server, then the server rejects it. It is then up to the client to go
back to the KDC and request a new session ticket. However, if the client is already communicating with the
server and the session ticket expires, communication continues to take place. Session tickets are used to
authenticate the connection to the server. After the authentication has taken place, the session ticket can
expire, but the connection will not be dropped.
Ticket-granting tickets also expire on the basis of the time set in the Kerberos realm policy. If a client
attempts to use an expired TGT with the KDC, then the KDC rejects it. At that point the client must request a
new TGT from the KDC, using the userís long-term key.
It is possible to renew tickets as well as flag settings The Kerberos realm policy dictates whether tickets are
renewable or not. If the policy allows tickets to be renewed, then the renewable flag is set in every ticket
issued by the KDC. In this situation, the KDC places a time in the end time field and another time in the
renew till time field of tickets. The time set in the renew till time field is equivalent to the time set in the start
time field added to the maximum cumulative ticket life set in the Kerberos realm policy. The client must
submit the ticket to the KDC prior to the original expiration time shown in the end time field. Every time the
client sends a ticket back to the KDC, it must send a new authenticator also. When the KDC receives the
ticket from the client, it checks the time set in the renew till time field. If the time has not already passed,
then the KDC creates a new copy of the ticket that has a new time set in the end time field as well as a new
session key. By issuing a new session key, the KDC helps to alleviate the possibility of compromised keys.
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