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One of the weaknesses in Windows NT 4.0 is inherent in the default access permissions assigned to the built-in groups for the file
system and the Registry. Windows 2000 has alleviated that weakness by refining the permissions granted to these groups.
Windows 2000 Server is a member server or stand-alone server when it is first installed onto a clean system. If the server participates in
a domain, it is a member server, but if it is in a workgroup, it is a stand-alone server. Active Directory is not automatically installed
during a fresh installation of a system, because the setup program does not know whether you want it to be a member server or a
domain controller. However, Windows 2000 Server does automatically create these groups when it is first installed:
• Administrators
• Backup Operators
• Guests
• Power Users
• Replicator
• Users
These groups are found in the “Groups” folder under Local Computer Users and Groups in the Computer Management console, as
shown in Figure 2.1.These same groups, with the exception of Power Users, are also present if the system is promoted to domain
controller; however, additional groups are added as domain local groups. The additional groups are:
• Account Operators
• Print Operators
• Server Operators
These groups, as well as the others, are found in the “Builtin” folder of your directory tree in the Active Directory Users and Computers
console, as shown in Figure 2.2.
Figure 2.1 These are the built-in groups for Windows 2000 Server when it is first installed on a clean system.
Figure 2.2 These are built-in groups for a Windows 2000 Server domain controller.
A major segment of operating system security is defined by the default access permissions granted to three groups: Administrators,
Power Users, and Users.
Administrators Group
The Administrators group is the most powerful group available on the system. Members of the Administrators group can perform any
function available in the operating system, and they are not restricted from access to any file system or Registry object. Members of the

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